The one million pound research programme involves experts from nine universities.
The research is being led by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in Wallingford, and the scientists believe it could help reduce the need for large-scale testing, which comes with financial and logistical challenges.
The work involves creating sampling, testing and scientific modelling methods that will be adopted by experts and Government agencies as part of nationwide surveillance of Covid-19 infection.
The World Health Organisation has said there is currently no evidence that coronavirus has been transmitted through sewerage systems.
But tests are able to detect the genetic residues of Sars-Cov-2, the virus that causes Covid-19 disease, in wastewater and those infected are thought to shed the virus in their faeces.
Scientists believe nationwide monitoring of sewerage systems could be a good way to identify future disease hotspots.
As part of the new £1 million research programme, the researchers will also assess the possibility for the coronavirus in wastewater and sludge to be infectious.
They believe understanding more about the infectivity of the virus in wastewater could help assess the risk to workers in sewage plants as well as to animals and people exposed to sewage discharge in rivers and seas.
Dr Andrew Singer from the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in Oxfordshire is the principal investigator of the new National Covid-19 Wastewater Epidemiology Surveillance Programme, he said: "Several studies have shown that the RNA of Sars-CoV-2 - the genetic material of the virus - can be detected in wastewater ahead of local hospital admissions, which means wastewater could effectively become the 'canary in the coal mine' for Covid-19 and other emerging infectious diseases.
"The research will be centred on wastewater-based epidemiology - the concept is based on analysis of wastewater for markers of infectious disease, illicit drugs or pharmaceuticals in order to better inform public health decisions.
"By sampling wastewater at different parts of the sewerage network, we can gradually narrow an outbreak down to smaller geographical areas, enabling public health officials to quickly target interventions in those areas at greatest risk of spreading the infection."
The programme, which is expected to last until October 2021, involves scientists from the universities of Oxford, Bangor, Bath, Edinburgh, Cranfield, Lancaster, Newcastle and Sheffield, as well as the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.