The victim was followed from Plush nightclub and attacked.
It happened at about 2.10am on Friday (12/4).
A man approached the 18-year-old as she left the club and then followed her along High Street towards the Marston Road and South Park Road area.
At some point during her journey, the offender led her to an unknown location and raped her.
The victim was found in a distressed state by a member of the public in Woodstock Road at about 3.40am.
Police say the exact location of the offence is yet to be established.
A 52-year-old man from Birmingham was arrested last night (13/4) on suspicion of rape and is currently in police custody.
Investigating officer, Detective Inspector Jessica Milne said: “This investigation is moving at a fast pace and we have now arrested a 52-year-old man from Birmingham on suspicion of rape. He is currently in police custody at this time.
“I would like to hear from anyone who has ever been followed in Oxford by a man.
“The offender in this investigation was described by the victim as a black man, slim, about 5ft 3ins tall, with black cornrows worn in a bun and stubble.”
Witnesses are urged to contact Thames Valley Police on 101, quoting reference 43190110496.